Second Language Studies/ESL Publications

Margie Berns - Tony Silva - April Ginther - Matthew Allen - Aylin Baris Atilgan - Lixia Cheng - Mark Haugen - Dennis Koyama - Kyle McIntosh - Masakazu Mishima - Xun Yan

Faculty

Margie Berns

Books/Collections

In the Presence of English:  Media and European Youth(co-editor with Kees de Bot and Uwe Hasebrink), New York, Springer, xviii + 161, 2007

Contexts of Competence: Social and Cultural Considerations in Communicative Language Teaching, New York: Plenum Press, iv + 179, 1990. [Korean translation, Contexts of Competence: Social and Cultural Considerations in Communicative Language Teaching (Plenum, 1991), Seoul, Korea: Hankookmunhwasa, 2011]

Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching Iii, (co-editor with Sandra J. Savignon).  Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, ix + 244, 1987

Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching (co-editor with Sandra J. Savignon). Reading, MA:  Addison Wesley, x + 243, 1983

Special Issues

Englishes in World Contexts. Special issue of World Englishes, 28, 2 (co-editor with Barbara Seidlhofer), 190-256, 2009

English in South America. Special issue of World Englishes 22, 2, (co-editor with Patricia Friedrich), i + 134, 2003

Articles and Book Chapters

Writing Fiction in the Stepmother Tongue: the Creative Writer and the Critic. In Łukasz Salski (Ed.), Foreign Language Opportunities in Writing. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. In press

Pedagogy and World Englishes: The Legacy of Yamuna Kachru. World Englishes, 34, 1, 22-30, 2015.

English in the Expanding Circle: the Differences Do Make a Difference. Forum for World Literature Studies, 3 (3), 410-419, 2011. http://www.fwls.org/download/vol-3-no-32011.html

Expanding on the expanding circle: where do WE go from here? Personality.Culture.Society. 2011, 66-77. [Russiantranslation of original appearing in World Englishes, 24 (1), 85-93, 2005.

Perspectives on English as a lingua franca: introduction(with Barbara Seidlhofer). World Englishes, 28 (2), 190-191, 2009.

English as lingua franca and English in Europe, World Englishes, 28 (2), 192-199, 2009.

Perspectives on English as a Lingua Franca (with J. Jenkins, M, Modiano, B. Seidlhofer, and Y. Yano. In T. Hoffmann and L. Siebers, (Eds.), World Englishes – Problems, Properties, and Prospects, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2007, pp. 369-384.

World Englishes, English as a lingua franca and intelligibility, World Englishes, 27 (3/4), 327-334, 2008.

Chapters in M. Berns, K. de Bot & U. Hasebrink, (Eds), In the Presence of English: Media and European Youth, New York, Springer, 2007:

The Presence of English: Sociocultural, Acquisitional, and Media Dimensions, pp. 1-14

English in Europe (with M. Claes, R. Evers, K. de Bot, U. Hasebrink, I. Huibregtse, C.Truchot & P. van de Wijst), pp. 15-42

An Empirical Approach to the Presence of English, pp. 43-52

In the Presence of English: A Resume after Step One of an International Study (with K. de Bot & U. Hasebrink), pp. 111-120

Social and Cultural contexts of English in Europe and South America:  Investigating the Differences. In Maria Isabel Gonzalez Cruz (Ed), Lengua, sociedad y cultura: Estudios interdisciplinares. Las Palmas, Gran Canaria: University of Las Palmas, pp. 25-38, 2006

Applied linguistics: Overview and History. In Keith Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition. Oxford: Elsevier, (with P. Matsuda), pp. 394-404, 2006

English Language Proficiency in Lower Secondary: a Comparative Study of Four European Countries. In C. Gnutzmann & F. Intemann (Eds). Globalization of English and the English Language Classroom. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, pp. 199-209 (with K. de Bot), 2005

Sociolinguistic Dimensions of Europeanness and Euro-English. Working Papers in Linguistics, 3. Chicago: Department of Linguistics, Northeastern Illinois University, pp.31-41, 2004  

English in South America: the Other Forgotten Continent, World Englishes, (with P. Friedrich*) 22 (2), 83-91, 2003.  [Reprinted in K. Bolton & B. Kachru (Eds.), Critical Concepts in Linguistics: World Englishes. Routledge, Vol. 3, pp. 55-62, 2006]

English in South America: Selected Bibliographical Resources, World Englishes (with P. Friedrich*) 22 (2), 211-214, 2003

Catching up with Europe: Speakers and Functions of English in Hungary, (with R. Petzold*), World Englishes 19 (1), 113-124, 2000

‘Words that shouldn’t be’: Linguistic Purism in Europe, The Clarion 6 (1&2), 36-40, 2000

New Trends in ESL/EFL Teaching Abroad, In Theory and Practice of Teaching Reform of       
English Education for Colleges, All-China Supervisory Committee of English Education for Colleges. Beijing:  Higher Education Press, pp.178-184, 1999

The English Language within the Media Worlds of European Youth (with Uwe Hasebrink and Ewart Skinner). In Peter Winterhoff-Spurk and Tom H. A. Van der Voordt. (Eds), New Horizons in Media Psychology, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 156-174, 1997

English in Europe: Whose Language, Which Culture? International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5: 21-32, 1995. [Reprinted in Critical Concepts in Linguistics: World Englishes. Eds. Kingsley     Bolton & Braj B. Kachru, Routledge, Vol. 3, pp. 7-17, 2006]

 English in the European Union, English Today, 43, 3-11, 1995

Use of English Lexical Items in German Legal Writings, (with Helmut Heil), American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 6, 175-198, 1994 [Translated into German and appeared as Zum Gebrauch des englishschen Wortschatzes in deutschen Rechtstexten, Lebende Sprachen 2, 60-65, 1997]

Sociolinguistics and the Teaching of English in Europe beyond the 1990s, World Englishes, 11, 3-14, 1992           
English in the German Legal Domain, Bilingualism with English as the Other Tongue, ed. Larry E. Smith and S. N. Sridhar. World Englishes 11, 155-161, 1992

Why Language Teaching Needs the Sociolinguist, Canadian Modern Language Review, 46, 339-353, 1990

Second Language Acquisition/Foreign Language Learning: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. In Bill VanPatten and James F. Lee (Eds), SLA-FLL: On the Relationship between Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Learning. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, pp. 3-11, 1990

Communicative Competence in the Plural and the Teaching of English in Non-native Contexts,Language Sciences, 12, 209-219, 1990

Learning and Using English in West Germany: a Firthian Perspective, ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics, 85/86, 51-65, 1989

Piepho, Eclecticism, and Kommunkative Didaktik: One American’s Perspective. In Christoph Edelhoff and Christopher Candlin (Eds.), Verstehen und Verständigung. Zum 60. Geburtstag von Hans-Eberhard Piepho. Bochum, West Germany: Kamp, pp. 106-112, 1989

The Cultural and Linguistic Context of English in West Germany. World Englishes 7 (1), 37-49,1988

Introduction.  In Sandra J. Savignon and Margie S. Berns(Eds.), Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching II, ed.  Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, (with S. Savignon), pp. vi-ix, 1987

The Reviewer Responds (In the Forum).TESOL Quarterly 19, 621-629, 1985

A Look at the Communicative and Functional Approaches to Language Teaching. CATESOLNews, March, 1984, 6, 18, 1985

Functional Approaches to Linguistics and Language Teaching: Another Look: in Sandra J. Savignon and Margie S. Berns (Eds.), Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 3-22, 1984

The Systemic Model and Its Implications for Language Teaching. TESOL Studies 5, University of Illinois, 1-16, 1982

Language as Communion. In Ingeborg Baumgartner and Myron Brick(Eds), In Recognition, There You Are. Festschrift in Honor of John E. Hart.  Albion, MI: Albion Review, Albion College, pp. 38-49, 1982

Review Essay/Responses/Comments

Review of Barbara Seidlhofer, Understanding English as a Lingua Franca (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), World Englishes, in press

(Re) experiencing Hegemony: the Linguistic Imperialism of Robert Phillipson (with Jeanelle Barrett*, Chak Chan*, Yoshiki Chikuma*, Patricia Freidrich*, Olga-Maria Hadjidimos*, Jill Harney*, Kristi   Hislope*, David Johnson*, Suzanne Kimball*, Yvonne Low*, Tracey McHenry*, Vivienne Palaiologos*, Marnie Petray, Rebecca Shapiro, & Ana Ramirez Shook*), International    Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8: 271-282, 1998

Hegemonic Discourse Revisited (with J. Barrett* et al*), International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9 (1), 138-142, 1999
A Closing Word (with J. Barrett et al*), International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9 (1), 138-142, 1999

[Each of the three above has been reprinted in a) Barbara Seidlhofer (Ed.), Controversies in Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press, 2003, 46-50, and in b) Kingsley Bolton & Braj B. Kachru (Eds), Critical Concepts in Linguistics: World Englishes. Routledge, Vol. 5, pp. 314-326; 330-334; 336 (respectively), 2006]

Comment 1.World Englishes 22 (4), 539-540. [On B. Kumaravadivelu, A Postmethod Perspective on English Language Teaching, pp. 539-550; and on Glenn Toh, Toward A More Critical Orientation to ELT in Southeast Asia, pp. 559-560], 2003

Truth, Heat and Light (with Ruth Petzold). World Englishes, 20 (1):134 –136 (Response to M. Kontra’s to Catching up with Europe: Speakers and Functions of English in Hungary (World Englishes 19 (1): 113-124,1999)

Encyclopedia Editorships

Editor, Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Elsevier, 2009

Coordinating Editor, Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics Vols. 1-14, (Applied Linguistics and Sociolinguistics sections), Elsevier Science, 2006

Section Editor, Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (Applied Linguistics), 2006

Encyclopedia Entries

Sociolinguistics. In Michael Byram and Adelheid Hu (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language Learning and Teaching, Second Edition. London: Routledge, pp. 639-644, 2012

Lingua franca / Language of Wider Communication, In C. Chapelle (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 3421–3427, 2012

Research Methods and World Englishes, In C. Chapelle (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Linguistics, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 4946–4950, 2012

Introduction. In Margie Berns (Ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Elsevier, pp. xv-xvi, 2009

Communicative competence. In Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, & Cecil L. Nelson(Eds.), The Handbook of World Englishes, Second Edition. Basingstoke: Blackwell. In press

Communicative competence. In Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, & Cecil L. Nelson(Eds.), The Handbook of World Englishes. Basingstoke: Blackwell, pp.718-730, 2006

Applied linguistics: overview and history. In Keith Brown(Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition. Oxford: Elsevier (with Paul Kei Matsuda), pp. 394-404, 2006

Tony Silva

de Oliveira, L.C., & Silva, T.  (Eds.) (2013). L2 writing in secondary classrooms: Student experiences, academic issues, and teacher education. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

de Oliveira, L.C., & Silva, T. (2013). On the radar screen and the need to focus on L2 writing in secondary classrooms. In L. C. de Oliveira & T. Silva, (Eds.) L2 writing in secondary classrooms: Student experiences, academic issues, and teacher education (pp. 1-5). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

Silva, T. (2013). Second language writing: Talking points. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(4), 432-434.

Silva, T. (2012).  JSLW@20: The prequel and the inside story (with several previously unpublished bonus texts). Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(3), 187-194.

Silva, T., McMartin-Miller, C., & Cimasko, T. (2012).  Recent scholarship on technology and second language writing: An annotated bibliography. In G. Kessler, A. Oskoz, & I. Elola (Eds.), Technology across writing contexts and tasks (pp. 317-338). CALICO Monograph Series, Volume 10.

Silva, T., Pelaez-Morales, C., McMartin-Miller, C., and Lin, M-H. (2012). Scholarship on L2 writing in 2011: The year in review. SLW News: The Newsletter of the Second Language Writing Interest Section.

Silva, T., McMartin-Miller, C., & Jayne, V., & Pelaez-Morales, C. (2011). Scholarship on L2 writing in 2010: The year in review. SLW News: The newsletter of the Second Language Writing Interest Section.

Silva, T. (2011). Second language writing in the 21st century. Foreign Languages and Their Teaching, 256, 17-23. [Reprinted (2012) in English writing in social-cultural contexts: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on teaching & researching EFL writing in China (pp. 1-25). Beijing, China: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.]

Silva, T., & Matsuda, P.K. (Eds.) (2010). Practicing theory in second language writing. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.

Leki, I., Cumming, A., & Silva, T. (2008). A synthesis of research on second language writing in English. New York, NY: Routledge.

Leki, I., Cumming, A., & Silva, T. (2006). Second-language composition teaching and learning. In. P. Smagorinsky (Ed.), Research in composition: Multiple perspectives on two decades of change (pp. 141-169). New York, NY: Teacher’s College Press.

Silva, T. (2006). Second language writing. Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2nd edition (Volume 11, pp. 111-117). Oxford, UK: Elsevier

Silva, T. (2005). On the philosophical bases of inquiry in second language writing: Metaphysics,  inquiry paradigms, and the intellectual zeitgeist. In P.K. Matsuda & T. Silva (Eds.) Research on second language writing: Perspectives on the construction of knowledge (pp. 3-15). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Matsuda, P.K., & Silva, T. (Eds.) (2005). Research on second language writing: Perspectives on the construction of knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Silva, T., & Brice, C. (2004). Research in teaching writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24, 70-106.

Silva, T., & Leki, I. (2004). Family matters: The influence of applied linguistics and composition studies on second language writing studies—past, present, and future. Modern Language Journal, 88(1), 1-13.

Silva, T., Reichelt, M., Chikuma, Y., Duval-Couetil, N., Mo, R.P.L., Velez-Rendon, G., & Wood, S. (2003). Second language writing up close and personal: Some success stories. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second Language writing (pp. 93-114). New York: Cambridge University Press. [Reprinted in The Wadsworth Handbook, 7th Edition, edited by L. Kirszner, & S. Mandell]

Silva, T. (2002). From the working class to the writing class: A second generation American teaches second language writing. In L. Blanton & B. Kroll (Eds.), ESL composition tales: Reflections on teaching (pp. 63-82), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Silva, T., & Matsuda, P.K (2002). Writing. In N. Schmitt (Ed.) An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 251-266). London: Edward Arnold Publishers Limited.

Silva, T., & Matsuda, P.K. (Eds.) (2001). Landmark essays on ESL writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Silva, T., & Matsuda, P.K. (Eds.) (2001). On second language writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Silva, T., Brice, C., Kapper, J., Matsuda, P.K., & Reichelt, M. (2001). Twenty-five years of scholarship on second language writing processes: 1976-2000. International Journal of English Studies, 1(2), 211-240.

Silva, T. (2000). ESL writing: Past, present, and future. HOW: A Colombian Journal for English Teachers, 7, 28-39.

Santos, T., Atkinson, D., Erickson, M., Matsuda, P.K., Silva, T. (2000). On the future of second language writing: A colloquium.  Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(1), 1-20.

Matsuda, P.K., & Silva, T. (1999). Cross cultural composition: Mediated integration of US and international students. Composition Studies, 27(1), 15-30.

Silva, T., Brice, C., & Reichelt, M. (1999). Selected bibliography of recent scholarship in second language writing. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Silva, T. (1998). The author responds. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 342-351.

Silva, T., Leki, I., & Carson, J. (1997). Broadening the perspective of mainstream composition studies: Some thoughts from the disciplinary margins. Written Communication, 14(3), 398-428. [Reprinted in I.L. Clark (Ed.) (2012). Concepts in composition: Theory and practice in the Teaching of Writing (pp. 339-356). New York, NY: Routledge.]

Silva, T. (1997). Differences in ESL and native English speaker writing: The research and its implications. In J. Butler, J. Guerra, & C. Severino (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings (pp. 209-219). New York: Modern Language Association.

Silva, T. (1997). On the ethical treatment of ESL writers. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 359-363.

Reichelt, M., & Silva, T. (1994/1995). Cross cultural composition. TESOL Journal, 5(2), 16-19.

Silva, T. (1994) An examination of writing program administrators' options for the placement of ESL students in first year writing classes. Writing Program Administration, 18(1/2), 37-43.

Silva, T. (1994). ESL composition. In A. Purves (Ed.), Encyclopedia of English studies and language arts (pp 435-437). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Silva, T. (1994). Resources for prospective teachers of ESL writers. English in Texas, 25(3), 8-10.

Silva, T., Reichelt, M., & Lax-Farr, J. (1994). Writing instruction for ESL graduate students: Examining issues and raising questions. ELT Journal, 48(3), 197-204.

Silva, T., & Nicholls, J. (1993). College students as writing theorists: Goals and beliefs about writing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(3), 281-293.

Silva, T., et al. (1993-2013). Selected bibliography of recent scholarship in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, Volumes 2-23.

Silva, T. (1993). Toward an understanding of the distinct nature of second language writing: The ESL research and its implications. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 657-677. [Reprinted in T. Silva & P.K. Matsuda (Eds.) (2001), Landmark essays in ESL writing (pp. 191-208). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]

Harris, M., & Silva, T. (1993). Tutoring ESL students: Issues and options. College Composition and Communication, 44(4), 525-537. [Reprinted in January 1996 and January 1999 in S. Morahan's Background readings, an ancillary accompanying The Bedford Guide for College Writers, 4th and 5th editions by X.J. Kennedy, D. Kennedy, and S. Holladay] [Reprinted in 2004 in T.T. Johnson’s Teaching composition: Background readings, 2nd edition. Bedford/St. Martin’s Press]

Silva, T. (1992). L1 vs. L2 writing: ESL graduate students' perceptions. TESL Canada Journal, 10(1), 27-47.

Silva, T. (1990). Second language composition instruction: Developments, issues, and directions in ESL. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 11- 23). New York: Cambridge University Press. 

Silva, T. (1988). Comments on Vivian Zamel's "Recent research on writing pedagogy." TESOL Quarterly, 22(3), 517-520.

Silva, T. (1984). Teacher-made videotape materials for the second language classroom. In S. Savignon & M. Berns (Eds.), Initiatives in communicative language teaching (pp. 137-153). Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

April Ginther

April publications here.

Students

Allen, Matthew
Allen, M., McCall, M. & Mike, G., (2013/forthcoming). First year composition through a global engineering perspective. Connexions International Professional Communication Journal, 2(1).

Atilgan, Aylin Baris
Atilgan, Aylin B. (2014). Chinese writers in the U.S. classroom: Marrying cultures of learning. TESOL International Association SLW News.
Retrieved from http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/tesolslwis/issues/2014-03-05/4.html

Atilgan, Aylin B. (2013). The effects of extensive reading on vocabulary on writing in terms of Vocabulary. Indiana Teachers of English to Speakers of Others Journals. 10 (1).
Retrieved from http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/intesol/article/view/15549/15610

Cheng, Lixia
Cheng, L. (2014). Imperatives or ‘I’d like’ statements: Suggestions in instructors’ written feedback for ESL student writers. NYS TESOL Journal, 1(1). Retrieved from http://journal.nystesol.org/jan2014/39cheng.pdf

Cheng, L., & Kauper, N. (2010). Using self assessment for teaching and learning classroom presentation skills. INTESOL Journal, 7(1), 25-42.

Haugen, Mark
Rahatzad, J., Ware, J., & Haugen, M. (2013). Chocolate covered twinkies: Social justice and superficial aims in teacher education. In L. C. de Oliveira, L. C. (Ed.). Teacher education for social justice: Perspectives and lessons learned. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. (Foreword by M. Cochran-Smith.)

Koyama, Dennis (2008-present)
Koyama, D., Sun, A., & Ockey, G. (in press). The effects of item preview on video-based MC listening assessments, Language Learning & Technology.

Koyama, D. (2014). [Review of the book Collaborative Writing in L2 Classrooms, by Neomy Storch]. Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 39–43.

Ockey, G. J., Koyama, D., Setoguchi, E., & Sun., A. (in press). The Extent to which TOEFL iBT Speaking Scores are Associated with Performance on Academic Oral Language Tasks and Oral Ability Components of Japanese University Students. Language Testing.

Ockey, G., Koyama, D., & Setoguchi, E. (2013). Stakeholder input and test design: A case study on changing the interlocutor familiarity facet of the group oral discussion test, Language Assessment Quarterly, 10(3), pp. 292-308.

Koyama, D. & Setoguchi, E. (2012). The effect of opening gambit types on group oral proficiency scores, Studies in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 22, pp.112-123.

Ruegg, R. & Koyama, D. (2010). The effect of feedback on EFL writing confidence. Studies in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 21, pp. 137-166.

Koyama, D. (2009). Evaluating holistic writing placement ratings, The Research Institute of Language Studies and Language Education Journal, Kanda University of International 
Studies, pp. 33-44.

Watanabe, Y., & Koyama, D. (2008). Second language cloze tests: A meta-analysis. Journal of Second Language Studies, 26(2), pp. 103-133. 

McIntosh, Kyle
Esseili, F., McIntosh, K., Torres, C., Lawrick, E., McMartin-Miller, C., & Chang, S-Y. (2009). World Englishes: Practical implications for teaching and research. INTESOL Journal, 6, 7-22.  

McIntosh, K. (2013). [Review of the book English language education across greater China, by A. Feng (Ed.)]. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal, 9(4), pp. 93-96.

McIntosh, K. (2011). [Review of the book Teaching readers of English, by J. S. Hedgcock & D. R. Ferris]. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10, pp. 203-204.
 
McIntosh, K., & Ginther, A. (2013). Writing research reports. In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment (pp. 1418-1430). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mishima, Masakazu
Mishima, M. (2013). Instructor feedback and students’ perceptions about their improvement in a freshman composition class: A recipe for reflective teaching. SLW news, March, 2013 issue

Mishima, M. (2009). Challenging the native speakerism. Teaching English as a global language in Japan. VDM Publishing House.

Mishima, M. (2008). Language proficiency and teaching experience in language education. NNEST Newsletter, 10(2)

Yan, Xun
Yan, X. (2014). An examination of rater performance on a local oral English proficiency test: A mixed-methods approach. Language Testing, 31(4), 501-527.

 

 

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