FOCALIZE (focalizer, focalized object): The presentation of a scene through the subjective perception of a character. The term can refer to the person doing the focalizing (the focalizer) or to the object that is being perceived (the focalized object).In literature, one can achieve this effect through first-person narration, free indirect discourse, or what Mikhail Bakhtin refers to as dialogism (see Module on Bakhtin). In film, the effect can be achieved through various camera tricks and editing, for example POV shots, subjective shots, over-the-shoulder shots, and so on. Focalization is a discursive element added to a narrative's story.
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