DIVISION OF LABOR: The way that different tasks are apportioned to different people in a given society. According to Marx and Engels, "How far the productive ofrces of a nation are developed is shown most manifestly by the degree to which the division of labour has been carried" (43). Human progress has led to various developments in the division of labor: first the "separation of industrial and commercial from agricultural labour, and hence to the separation of town and country and to the conflict of their interests" (43). The "various stages of development in the division of labour are just so many different forms of ownership" (43), Marx and Engels outlline those stages as: 1) the tribal form, which is really "a further extension of the natural division of labour existing in the family" (44); 2) primitive communism: "the ancient communal and and State ownership which proceeds especially from the union of several tribes into a city by agreement or by conquest" (44), during which time the concept of private property begins to develop; 3) feudal or estate property; and 4) capitalism. For more on these stages of development, see the Marx module on the stages of economic development.
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